Take a look at a recent School of Urban Affairs publication:
This study examines if a significant correlation exists between leadership characteristics and levels of education of senior-level personnel and the U. S. fire service organizational culture. The purpose of this quantitative descriptive study was to identify leadership characteristics and educational levels among senior-level fire service personnel in the United States. The study included two research questions. What is the prevalent leadership characteristic? What level of education is prevalent among senior-level fire service personnel in the United States? The two independent variables included leadership characteristics and educational levels. The dependent variable is the organizational culture. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire captured the research. The theoretical framework was transformational leadership. Out of the one thousand NFA/EFO students identified, 465 students completed the survey with 95% confidence level and a 3.33% margin of error. Data collection occurred over 30 days using SurveyMonkey. The study included the statistical t test and descriptive analysis test. A relationship existed in leadership characteristics and no level of education was prevalent among senior-level fire service personnel. Two practical implications emerged. First, the need for senior-level fire service personnel to earn formal education. Second, advance education may enhance a businesslike culture and professionalism in the fire service. Future research implications encompass fire science combined with leadership characteristic education as a degree course of instruction nationwide.